The Manu National Park is home to at least 4 different indigenous groups, the Machiguenga, the Mascho-Piro, the Yaminahua or Yore and the Amahuaca. Some of whom choose to live in voluntary isolation within the park. There are also around 5000 Harakmbut people living in the Madre de Dios region of Peru, 700 of which live in the park.
On the edge of the park the community of Diamante is home to around 400 Yine people and there are also ”colonos”, or settlers, living in towns like Salvacion and Atalya. These people are not native to the area, originating mainly in the Andes, and settled here relatively recently, in the 1930s.